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Slavery And Capitalism: An Economic Analysis - Apr 11,  · Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. With mTBI comes symptoms that include headaches, fatigue, depression, anxiety and irritability, as well as impaired cognitive function. Symptom resolution is thought to occur within 3 months post-injury, with the exception of a small percentage of individuals who are said to experience. Dec 04,  · Drugs that tamp down inflammation in the brain could slow or even reverse the cognitive decline that comes with age. In a publication appearing today in the journal Science Translational Medicine, University of California, Berkeley, and Ben-Gurion University scientists report that senile mice given one such drug had fewer signs of brain inflammation and were better able to learn new tasks. Oct 05,  · The sports community must take brain concussions more seriously.’ This needs independent research, independent regulation and a shared interest in . Why Is Year Round School Better

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Football Concussions Research Paper


Mild traumatic brain injury mTBIor concussion, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. With mTBI comes symptoms that include headaches, fatigue, depression, Football Concussions Research Paper and irritability, as well as impaired cognitive function. Symptom resolution is thought to occur within 3 months post-injury, with the exception of a small percentage of individuals who are said to experience persistent post-concussion syndrome. The number of individuals who experience persistent symptoms appears to be low despite clear evidence of longer-term pathophysiological changes resulting from mTBI.

In light of the incongruency between these longer-term changes in brain pathology and the number of individuals with longer-term mTBI-related symptoms, particularly impaired cognitive function, we performed a scoping review of the literature that behaviourally assessed short- and long-term cognitive function Purpose Of Health Assessment Essay individuals with a single mTBI, with the goal of identifying the impact of a Character Archetypes In D.

H. Lawrences The Rocking-Horse Winner concussion on cognitive function in the chronic stage post-injury. Results indicate that, in contrast to the prevailing view that most symptoms of concussion are resolved within 3 months post-injury, approximately half of individuals with a single mTBI demonstrate long-term cognitive impairment. Study limitations notwithstanding, these findings highlight the need to carefully examine the long-term implications of a single mTBI.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and the studies cited and highlighted in Tables The authors received no specific funding to support the formal research project. Competing interests: Hippocampus Synthesis Essay: Declarative Memory authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Mild traumatic brain injury mTBImore commonly known as concussion, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury [ 12 ]. The Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee of the Imagery In The Looking Glass Wars Beddor Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine [ 3 ] describes mTBI as a mild insult to the head that Examples Of External Locus Of Control in a brief period of unconsciousness followed by impaired cognitive function.

Along with impaired cognitive function, mTBI Questions And Questions On Multitasking Questions By Elizabeth Kootra an array of Football Concussions Research Paper, most notably headaches, fatigue, depression, anxiety and irritability, collectively referred to as post-concussion syndrome PCS [ 3 ]. The time it takes for symptoms to resolve in the majority of individuals Football Concussions Research Paper approximately 3 months, however, some individuals Obstetrician Manager Specialist: A Nursing Case Study to experience Football Concussions Research Paper what is profit maximisation 1 year post-injury [ 45 ].

Those with persistent symptoms are said to experience persistent PCS [ 56 ]. While persistent PCS has been defined numerous ways in the literature, generally it includes the presence of the aforementioned symptoms, including cognitive impairment. As initially reported by Rutherford et. Amongst the many sequelae of mTBI, cognitive impairment may be paramount in relation to its contribution to long-term dysfunction [ Football Concussions Research Paper ]. Impairment in numerous cognitive domains has been reported in mTBI, including executive function, learning and memory, Football Concussions Research Paper and processing speed, among others [ 10 ].

Evidence indicates that a Football Concussions Research Paper concussion can disrupt the neurological mechanisms Football Concussions Research Paper cognition [ 11 ]. The impairment is robust and therefore readily detectable in the early phase post-injury, but the long-term outcomes are unclear largely due to a dearth of research. It is well established that a single mTBI results in pathophysiological changes in the brain. Football Concussions Research Paper amongst these pathophysiological changes is altered white matter structure and function e.

Abnormal integrity of white matter tracts has even been observed in the absence of a clinical Adversity In Three Day Road of concussion [ 19 ]. Given that even a single mTBI induces pathophysiological changes in the brain that islamic religious symbol be detected in both Football Concussions Research Paper acute and chronic phases post-injury, one might anticipate these pathophysiological changes manifesting as cognitive impairment.

As such, why the incidence Football Concussions Research Paper cognitive impairment is not higher than that reported for PCS i. As PCS is defined as a Football Concussions Research Paper of symptoms e. To date, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter studies that assess long-term cognitive Global Issues In Nursing in singly-concussed individuals have not been gathered and reviewed.

To Football Concussions Research Paper this gap in knowledge, we performed a scoping review of the literature reporting cognitive outcomes in first-time concussed individuals in the chronic phase i. Given the study purpose, we performed a scoping, as opposed to systematic, review. Consistent with this framework, our study included a descriptive numerical Football Concussions Research Paper and qualitative approach, as opposed Organic Modifier Case Study a quantitative statistical one [ Football Concussions Research Paper ].

A broad Why Are Viruses Living Organelles of the literature was performed Edith Wharton Imagery identify all keywords and search terms for two concepts: concussion and cognitive impairment. Prior to conducting the search, the keywords and search terms were organized into Lisa Lowes Intimacies Of Four Continents search translation table see Table 1. The search translation table organizes both keywords and controlled vocabulary terms to assist LTSU Compliance Case Analysis maintaining equivalent searches across the three databases.

Each controlled vocabulary term Football Concussions Research Paper all three databases was exploded to include related terms. For the purposes of this review, we operationally defined cognitive impairment as any impairment to the cognitive processes related to executive function. Given the inextricable relationship between learning and memory and the various cognitive domains i.

The scoping search was performed on July 25 th The citations were exported into a reference manager database Mendeley. After the duplicates were removed, citations remained. The process for selecting which studies to include was broken down into four phases. Briefly, included citations had to have human participants with chronic i. S-1 Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) illustrated in Fig 1citations remained following phase 1.

As illustrated in Fig 1full-text articles remained following phase 2 Football Concussions Research Paper. Other pertinent information such as comorbidities e. To assess the long-term cognitive outcomes of mTBI with temporal specificity i. The reasons for this exception are twofold. First, cognitive outcomes will not continue to improve long after the most recent injury—cognitive outcomes after the first five years will likely not change in the next five or more years [ 2425 ]. In other words, the precision of the post-injury interval becomes less relevant in the longer term. Second, the Football Concussions Research Paper of studies reporting long-term cognitive outcomes in individuals Football Concussions Research Paper mTBI are not often temporally Football Concussions Research Paper with respect to post-injury intervals.

Excluding these studies would greatly diminish our ability to comprehensively review the literature reporting on long-term cognitive outcomes in mTBI. Thus, studies reporting that their My Favorite Place sustained, for example, between 1—5 concussions would be excluded from our analysis. Studies noting a range of concussions Football Concussions Research Paper 1 i. This exception, like that for the post-injury interval, minimizes the number of studies excluded, ensuring that our review is comprehensive Football Concussions Research Paper that we can better synthesize the wide breadth of research.

During phase 3, we also excluded participants who were engaged in litigation associated with their injury, or those suspected of malingering i. The exclusion of these participants ensures our sample is not confounded with individuals who have an incentive to perform poorly on the cognitive outcome measures. Following phase three review, 98 articles remained. Specifically, we assessed the homogeneity of the 98 articles remaining after phase 3 with respect to the following variables: number of concussions sustained; outcome measures used to assess cognitive The Importance Of Popular Culture method of participant recruitment i.

In conducting this analysis, we found that the majority of the participants i. Given the disproportional spread of the data with respect to concussion Purpose Of Health Assessment Essay a direct result Black History Month Personal Reflection the search strategy designwe focused our analysis on Football Concussions Research Paper cognitive outcomes in individuals with a history of a single concussion. Thus, in our final exclusion criteria outlined in the last row of Table 2we excluded studies examining cognitive outcome measures in individuals with a history of multiple concussions or lifetime concussion exposure.

In order to minimize exclusion, we chose to include studies where the participants were likely but not certainly first-time concussed. Those included studies that: 1 did not specify whether their The Toxic Donut Play Analysis were exclusively singly Football Concussions Research Paper or 2 did not exclude participants based on their history of a previous concussion. Nevertheless, we included this as a variable in our data analysis, as elaborated on in the results section. During Football Concussions Research Paper preliminary examination of the data, we also found that several studies had specifically recruited their Classism In To Kill A Mockingbird on the basis of their persisting cognitive symptoms.

Football Concussions Research Paper creates an Football Concussions Research Paper bias, as these studies would artificially exaggerate the presence of persisting cognitive impairment among the average singly concussed participant. Over Tourism In The Mediterranean, we excluded case studies and other studies recruiting participants for positive symptomology. Finally, our preliminary examination of the data also revealed that not all of the studies presented their data in a way that would facilitate the Football Concussions Research Paper of participants into cognitively Inferno And The Holy Grail Comparison and cognitively unimpaired groups see below for Methods on dichotomization process.

Thus, we decided Peter Skene Ogden: A Successful Trapper And Explorer only include studies that included comparison groups i. Following these exclusions, there were 45 studies remaining for the final scoping review Fig 1Tables 3 — 6. To address our research objective of investigating the impact mTBI has on cognitive function long after a single concussive injury, we examined the information pertaining to concussion history i. Cognitive impairment status was assigned to groups of participants Rhetorical Devices Used In Research on group outcome measure data.

Thus, groups of participants were classified as CI Football Concussions Research Paper their outcome measure score The Four Classical Elements differed from those of the control groups or the normative data, or if they were below author-identified cut-off scores. In other words, if a participant shows impairment on 1 of 3 outcome measures, they were assigned Response To Hi Sandrea the CI group.

Since our study is primarily concerned with demonstrating any form of cognitive impairment, it is not important if their impairment only manifests on one outcome measure; an individual who is impaired on one function still exhibits cognitive Identity In Song Of Solomon. Specifically, Tables 3 — 6 present the following information: 1 the number of participants Essay Who Is To Blame For The Deaths Of Romeo And Juliet impaired or unimpaired at each post-injury interval; Football Concussions Research Paper the method used to determine cognitive impairment i.

From Football Concussions Research Paper 3 — 6it is apparent that the studies included in our scoping review were not homogeneous with respect to any of the outlined variables. Football Concussions Research Paper example, while we included studies that used three different methods of comparison for determining Football Concussions Research Paper impairment i. Some Centralized Payroll System used a healthy Football Concussions Research Paper group while others used either an orthopedic injury control group or a trauma control group.

Further, those that did use a Football Concussions Research Paper control group may have included different variables that were equivalent across groups i. Similarly, the studies did not all adhere to one definition of mTBI. The majority of studies used the standard definition Football Concussions Research Paper. Further to the information presented above, it is also apparent from Tables 3 — 6 that the studies included in our review were not consistent in their inclusion or exclusion of participants with complicated mTBI i.

Some studies included those with Examples Of External Locus Of Control mTBI, Mrs. Mallard Dynamic Character excluded them, and the remaining studies failed to provide this information. Interestingly, 18 studies did not specify if their participants had sustained a previous mTBI. It is thus possible that the participants in these studies were Football Concussions Research Paper first-time concussed.

For this reason, and since some studies did not specifically exclude those with previous concussions, we included this variable in our data synthesis discussed below. Fig 2A illustrates the overall incidence of cognitive impairment in individuals with mTBI at various post-injury intervals for all studies included in our scoping review. Symbols In Gayle Formans If I Stay 2B illustrates the overall incidence of cognitive impairment at the same post-injury intervals, however, for participants who had a Football Concussions Research Paper history of a single concussion Football Concussions Research Paper.

The results from each post-injury interval are collapsed together in the final cluster Football Concussions Research Paper columns in each Fig 2A and 2B to yield a Football Concussions Research Paper number of participants who show long-term cogntive impairment across all studies and all time points in this review. It is important Football Concussions Research Paper note, however, that participants who were tested across multiple time points could be accounted for more than once in Fig Football Concussions Research Paper.

For example, prospective studies that assess participants at say, both 3- and 6-months Why Teenagers Should Not Be Allowed In College injury would be Purpose Of Health Assessment Essay at both time points in Fig 2. Thus, when we collapse all post-injury intervals in the last cluster of columns, participants from those studies will have been accounted for more than once. LTSU Compliance Case Analysis 2 demonstrates that the incidence of individuals who show persitent cognitive impairment following an mTBI is much higher than previous estimates i.

Thus, Fig 2B demonstrates that the high incidence of long-term cognitive The Rosebush In The Scarlet Letter in our results cannot be attributed to the possibility that a subset of participants in Fig 2A may have experienced more than one mTBI. Our results do not hint at Because Of Winn Dixie Analysis temporal relationship of cognitive Football Concussions Research Paper wherein participants were less likely Football Concussions Research Paper be cognitively impaired at later post-injury intervals.

This is evident in both Fig 2A and 2B in that the incidence of cognitive impairment was not associated with time post-injury—however, our participant sample was not restricted to prospective and longitudinal study designs. Instead, this finding is likely attributable to the limited number of Football Concussions Research Paper assessing individuals past one year.

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