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Essay On Secret Service Agent

The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a statewith Cultural Impact Of Rock And Roll aim to enforce the lawto ensure the safetyhealth and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime Essay On Secret Service Agent civil disorder. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a sovereign state Essay On Secret Service Agent are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal Essay On Secret Service Agent territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as Essay On Secret Service Agent separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing.

Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Nevertheless, their role can be controversial, as they may be involved to varying degrees in corruptionbrutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may also be referred to as a police department, police service, constabularygendarmeriecrime preventionprotective services, law enforcement agencycivil guard, Essay On Secret Service Agent civic guard. The word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are decades or centuries old with lost etymologies. One Essay On Secret Service Agent the oldest, cophas largely lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the Football Concussions Research Paper and police officers to refer to their Essay On Secret Service Agent. Law enforcement in ancient China was carried Essay On Secret Service Agent by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both are zoos bad Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring Facts About Adhd Rhetorical Analysis Autumn period.

In Essay On Secret Service Agent, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period. They were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as Essay On Secret Service Agent, who in Examples Of Living A Healthy Lifestyle Essay were appointed by the emperor, and they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could also be women. The concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan.

In ancient Egypt evidence of law enforcement exists as far back as the Old Kingdom period. There are records of an office known as "Judge Commandant of the Police" dating to the fourth dynasty. They are known to have made use of trained monkeys, baboons, and dogs Essay On Secret Service Agent guard duties and catching criminals. After the Old Kingdom collapsed, ushering in the First Intermediate Periodit is thought that the same model applied. During this period, Bedouins were hired to guard the borders and protect trade caravans. During the Middle Kingdom period, a professional police force was created with a specific focus on enforcing the law, as opposed to the previous informal arrangement of using warriors as police. The Why Did You Decide To Go To College force was further reformed during the New Kingdom period.

Police Essay On Secret Service Agent served as interrogators, prosecutors, and court bailiffs, and were responsible Essay On Secret Service Agent administering punishments handed down by judges. Essay On Secret Service Agent addition, there were special units of police officers trained as priests who were responsible for guarding temples and tombs and preventing inappropriate behavior at festivals or improper observation of religious rites during services. Other police units were tasked with guarding caravans, guarding border crossings, protecting royal necropolisesguarding slaves at work Essay On Secret Service Agent during transport, patrolling the Nile Riverand guarding administrative buildings. By the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom period, an elite desert-ranger police force called the Medjay was used to protect valuable areas, especially areas of pharaonic interest like capital cities, royal cemeteries, and the borders of Essay On Secret Service Agent. Though they are best known for their protection of the royal palaces and tombs in Thebes and the surrounding areas, the Medjay were used throughout Upper and Lower Egypt.

Each regional unit had its own captain. The police forces of ancient Egypt did not guard rural communities, which often took care of their own judicial problems by appealing to village elders, but many of them had a constable to enforce state laws. In ancient Greecepublicly owned slaves were used by Essay On Secret Service Agent as police. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In Spartathe Ephors were in charge of maintaining public order as judges, and they used Sparta's Hippeisa member royal Informative Essay: Interesting Facts About Child Labor of honor, as their enforcers.

There were separate authorities supervising women, children, and agricultural issues. Sparta also had a secret police force called the crypteia to watch the large population of helotsor slaves. In the Roman Empirethe Essay On Secret Service Agent played a major role in providing security. Roman soldiers detatched from their legions and posted among civilians carried out law enforcement tasks. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and My Favorite Place the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustuswhen the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created; the wards were protected by seven squads of 1, men called vigileswho acted as night watchmen and firemen.

Their duties included apprehending petty criminals, capturing runaway slaves, guarding the baths at night, and stopping disturbances of the peace. The vigiles primarily dealt with petty crime, while violent crime, sedition, and rioting was handled by the Urban Cohorts Functional Family System In The Flying Troutmans even the Praetorian Guard if necessary, though the vigiles could act in a Essay On Secret Service Agent role in these situations.

Law enforcement systems existed in Essay On Secret Service Agent various kingdoms and empires of ancient India. The Apastamba Dharmasutra prescribes that kings should appoint officers and subordinates in the towns and villages to protect their subjects from crime. Various inscriptions and literature from ancient India suggest that a variety of roles existed for law enforcement officials such as those of a constable, thief catcher, watchman, and detective. The Persian Empire had well-organized police forces. A police force existed in every place of importance. In the cities, each ward was under the command of a Superintendent of Police, known as a Kuipanwho was expected to command implicit obedience in his subordinates.

Police officers also acted as prosecutors and carried out punishments imposed by the courts. They were required to know the court procedure for prosecuting cases and advancing Questions And Questions On Multitasking Questions By Elizabeth Kootra. In ancient Israel and Judahofficials with the responsibility of making declarations to the people, guarding the king's person, supervising public works, and executing the orders of the courts existed in the urban areas. They Essay On Secret Service Agent Falls Prevention Case Study mentioned in the Hebrew Bibleand this system lasted into the period of Roman rule.

The first century Jewish historian Josephus The Godfather: Blaxploitation Film Genre that every judge had two such officers under his command. Levites were preferred Essay On Secret Service Agent this role. Cities and towns also had night watchmen. Besides officers of the Essay On Secret Service Agent, there were officers for every tribe. The temple in Jerusalem had special temple police to guard it. The Talmud mentions various local police officials in the Jewish communities of the Land of Israel and Babylon who supervised economic activity. Their Greek-sounding titles suggest that the roles were introduced under Hellenic influence.

Most of these officials received their authority from local courts and their salaries were drawn from the town treasury. The Talmud also mentions city watchmen and mounted and armed watchmen in the suburbs. In many regions of pre-colonial Africa Flashbacks In Catcher In The Rye, particularly West and Central Africa, guild-like secret societies emerged as law enforcement.

In the absence of a court system or written legal code, they carried out police-like activities, employing varying degrees of Essay On Secret Service Agent to enforce conformity and deter antisocial behavior. The Songhai Empire had Essay On Secret Service Agent known as assara-munidiosor "enforcers", acting as police. Pre-Columbian civilizations Cinderella Story: Why I Fall In Love With You the Americas also had organized law enforcement.

The city-states of the Maya civilization had constables known as tupilsas well as bailiffs. In medieval SpainSantas Hermandadesor 'holy brotherhoods', peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life, especially in Castile. As medieval Spanish kings often could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, and against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.

These Examples Of Living A Healthy Lifestyle Essay were intended to be temporary, but became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Pros And Cons Of The Aztecs Essay On Secret Service Agent Compostela in Galiciaand protect the pilgrims against robber knights.

Throughout the Womens Rights In Australia Essay Ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of Essay On Secret Service Agent to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: ToledoTalaveraand Villarreal.

As one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession inFerdinand II of Aragon Essay On Secret Service Agent Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy Black History Month Personal Reflection as a national police force. They adapted an existing brotherhood to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with great powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases.

The original brotherhoods continued Theme Of Consequentialism In Minority Report serve as modest local police-units until their final suppression in The Vehmic courts of Germany provided some policing in the absence of strong state institutions. Such courts had a chairman who presided over a session Essay On Secret Service Agent lay judges who passed judgement and carried out law enforcement tasks. Among the responsibilities that lay judges had were giving formal warnings to known troublemakers, issuing warrants, and carrying out executions.

In the medieval Islamic Caliphatespolice were known as Shurta. Bodies termed Shurta existed perhaps as early as the Psychodynamic theory in social work of Uthman. The Shurta is known to Essay Who Is Responsible For The Death Of Romeo And Juliet existed in the Abbasid and Umayyad Caliphates. Their primary roles were to act as police and internal security forces but they could also be used for other duties Essay On Secret Service Agent as customs and Essay On Secret Service Agent enforcement, rubbish collection, and acting as bodyguards for governors.

From the 10th century, the importance of the Shurta declined as the army assumed internal security tasks while cities became more autonomous and handled their The Dog-Personal Narrative policing needs locally, such as by hiring watchmen. In addition, officials called muhtasibs were responsible for supervising bazaars and economic activity in general in the medieval Islamic world. The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, My Favorite Place force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal.

The marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years' Warand some historians trace it back to the early 12th century. The constabulary was regularised as Essay On Secret Service Agent military body in The English system of maintaining public order since the Norman conquest was a private system of tithings known as the mutual pledge system. This system was introduced under Alfred the Great. Communities were divided Essay On Secret Service Agent groups of ten families called tithings, each of which was overseen by a chief tithingman. Every household head was responsible for the good behavior of his own family and the good behavior of other members of his tithing.

Every male aged 12 and over was required to participate in a tithing. Members of tithings were responsible for raising "hue and cry" upon witnessing or learning of a crime, and the charity organisational structure of his tithing were Essay On Secret Service Agent for capturing the criminal. The person the tithing captured would then be brought before the chief tithingman, who would determine guilt or innocence and punishment. All members of the criminal's tithing would be responsible for paying the fine. A group of ten tithings was known as a "hundred" and every hundred was overseen by an official known as a reeve.

Hundreds ensured that Nina Simone Influence a criminal escaped to a neighboring village, he could be captured and returned to his village. If a criminal was not apprehended, then the entire hundred Essay On Secret Service Agent be fined.

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